1. 0 INTRODUCTION In aviation, transport of dangerous goods by air is important for take care the safety of handling and transport the dangerous goods by air. As we know, transport of dangerous goods by air is articles or substances which can able risk to health, safety or property when transported by air. In addition, transport by air is refer to any vehicle that human made to move human or things through air while dangerous goods can be described as solids, gases or liquids that can harm people, property, other living or the environment.
Since these dangerous goods can cause harm, there are outlines or regulations to be followed by aviation industry and it has been writing and discussed by ICAO in Annex 18. In Annex 18, there are technical instructions on how to manage the dangerous goods and transported through air and also it is important to understand the content inside Annex 18 that I would discussed in this assignment. Moreover, not everyone can handle these dangerous goods. There are some professional that have the licence can handle the dangerous goods through air.
The knowledge and awareness about dangerous goods is enabling the professional to ensure safety in handle the dangerous goods. That is because almost 70% of aircraft accidents cause of human error. Thus, the awareness is a must to professional that handle dangerous goods. Although, there are so many bad impacts of dangerous goods and it might cause an accident, the aviation industries still take the responsibility to transport the dangerous goods. That is because transport of dangerous goods by air is in high demand around the world and it is known that aviation industry is the safest and fastest transportation.
It can post the dangerous goods by time and save a lot of time to wait and receive the goods. Therefore, Annex 18 is produced to increased the safety and reduce human error. Thus, in this assignment I will discuss about how to manage or handle dangerous goods and importance of handling dangerous goods correctly. 2. 0 MANAGE DANGEROUS GOODS Dangerous goods could easily come in contact with materials that are not compatible through spills or leakage and can release toxic gases or cause a fire or explosion. Therefore, the airline industry made a regulation about limitation of transports dangerous goods.
2. 1 Documentation As we know, all industry using documentation if they want to transfer or sending their item to another places. Therefore, documentation in airline industry is important and must follow their requirement to sending the dangerous goods. With all air cargo, there is a requirement that anyone who consigns cargo must either describe the content or certify that the cargo does not contain harmful substances. In describing the contents of the package, the people who receive and handle the cargo at the premises of airlines know what the nature of the cargo is.
In transportation, there are dangerous goods must be delivered not only through signs and labels on the package, but also through shipping papers accompanying materials. Furthermore, documentation includes a description of dangerous goods and emergency response information must also accompany the shipment. For examples, the air waybill, contract carrier for transportation, usually not used to transmit information required dangerous goods except where dry ice is used for refrigerate non-hazardous materials, or when the transmission is in quantity exception.
In the documentation, it gives full details of the shipment including name or address of shipper and consignee, aircraft type, airports of origin and destination, shipment type, proper shipping name, hazard class, UN or ID number, subsidiary risk if any, quantity and type of packaging, packing instruction, any special authorizations, additional handling information and shipper’s certification. Some guidance on the preparation of the air waybill, are also given in the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations. 2. 2 Separation and Segregation
As we know, dangerous goods are only compatible if the interaction does not result in a response that could lead to explosions, fires, hazardous reactions, or flammable, toxic or corrosive items. If the goods are not compatible they cannot be stored together in case it allows them come into contact. In these circumstances, separation and segregation techniques are vital for minimise risks to safety or health. In addition, it is a legal requirement that dangerous goods are not compatible with other materials
stored and handled separately so that loss of containment or interaction may not cause a serious incident. According compatibility chart in Australian Standard AS 3833:2007,’the storage and handling of mixed classes of dangerous goods, in packages and intermediate bulk containers’ provides complete and detailed analysis of compatibility. In certain circumstances, the separation can be obtained by requiring a certain distance between incompatible dangerous goods. The intervening space between dangerous goods can be filled with cargo compatible with hazardous materials or goods in question.
Furthermore, storage areas for different classes of dangerous goods, dangerous goods are not suitable from the same class, or harmless items that are not compatible, should be separated by at least five meters. In other words, any dangerous goods that loaded inside the aircraft must be located with specific distance and range from passenger or dangerous goods those not same classes. For examples, dangerous goods that in class 3 and class 4 must be loaded in further distance to avoid they interact each other when spillage or leakage.
Separating items by storing far apart or separating them from each other by placing inert materials of the items that are not compatible is one of the segregation techniques. Using a separate room or enclosure, isolate items that are not compatible with fire rated partition impervious to vapors and liquids. This is useful for materials which may react violently or has a high burning rate. For examples, ammonium nitrate fertilisers and chlorate defoliants may form a potentially explosive mixture. If these dangerous goods put and stored in the cargo that same with not compatible dangerous goods, it will be reacting and can become explosion.
In addition, store items that are not compatible in a separate building are used in separation and segregation techniques. This could be useful for “dangerous when wet” goods, such as calcium or aluminium carbonide phospide, which reacts with water to create toxic gases. Therefore, the professional handling must check regularly that isolation measures implemented and, if any inconsistencies are found, remove the offending item from the storage area. And, as part of the management system of the dangerous goods, to take action to ensure it does not happen.
Safety explosives and articles will be enhanced by transporting each type separately, but the considerations of practicability and economic prevent as ideal. Isolation between the harmful storage of different items can be used to store items that are not dangerous, but they cannot be stored in a containment bund. Items that are not dangerous should be non-flammable and chemically compatible with the dangerous goods are stored. FIGURE 1: EXAMPLES OF SEGREGATION 2. 3 Packaging Packaging is an important component in the safe transport of dangerous goods by air.
IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations provide packaging instructions for all dangerous goods acceptable for air transportation with several of options for inner, outer, and single packaging. The Technical Instructions require that all dangerous goods must be packed properly and tends to limit the quantity of each package according to the level of hazards and the type of aircraft either passengers or cargo where the goods are loaded. As we know, the nature of packaging is based on the class of dangerous goods being transported.
In addition, there are three packaging options for dangerous goods shipped under the international standards that are specification packaging, limited quantities packaging and excepted quantities packaging. Packaging specifications are generally the performance tested packaging, developed and tested under the packaging specifications of the United Nations. Performance test requirements clearly describe why the shipper must know the technical features of a chemical being delivered. In limited quantities packaging, there are certain materials that are eligible to be transported under packaging exceptions for limited quantities.
This exception allows the use of non-specification packaging combination to the net quantity of materials that reduces rather than packaging specifications. Limited quantity shipments are subject to all requirements of communication and documentation. In excepted quantities packaging, there are very small quantities of certain dangerous goods permitted to be shipped without labels or specific hazards of dangerous goods documentation under “exception quantities” provisions. Among these general provisions is the requirement that the packaging materials in direct contact with dangerous goods must be
resistant to any chemical reaction or other action of the goods and packaging materials must not contain ingredients that can react dangerously with the content which can form dangerous products or significantly weaken the packaging. Furthermore, the officer or professional handling must know the important technical characteristics of the material they want to ship. It is their responsibility for determining whether a hazardous substance and in which class it belongs. Therefore, before them packaging, they must identify first the classes of dangerous goods.
In most circumstances, container for packaging must be leak proof inside a box. Then, the dangerous goods are sealed inside a seal container which is placed in the outside package that protects it from damage or broken. Although, different packages is depending on the type of substance that are deliver. In addition, packaging is used for the transport dangerous goods by air should be good quality. It shall be constructed and covered to prevent leakage form which may be caused in normal conditions of transport, by changes in temperature, humidity, pressure or vibration.
Therefore, inner packaging should be packaged, secured or balanced to prevent damage or leakage and to control their movements. FIGURE 2: EXAMPLES OF PACKAGING 2. 4 Marking and Labelling For the information, labelling and marking is two different things in dangerous goods technical instruction. Marking are specifically refers to UN number while labelling are refers to class label or subsidiary level. The marks are including special marks such as orientation, marine pollutant, environmentally hazardous and elevated temperature marks.
As the special requirements for transportation, dangerous goods suppliers are required by law to label hazardous products and packaged chemicals with symbols of hazards, warning and safety advice. In marking, the UN number is indicates the type of dangerous goods itself which in the base of UN number is the material needed for packaging, proper labelling required and the type of packing group is known. Packages is always mark to indicate what they contain in inside. In addition, the standard marking found on all packages are ID number and proper shipping name.
In labelling, there are two types of labels that are hazard labels and handling labels. Hazard labels are required for most dangerous goods in all classed while handling labels is required in addition to hazard labels for some dangerous goods and vary in colour, symbol and size. Furthermore, the packages are labelled to indicate the hazard or the contents present in transport. In addition, other labels may specify handling conditions. FIGURE 3: EXAMPLES OF LABELLING 2. 5 Classification The classification dealt with in the regulations.
People who manufacture goods or products containing hazardous materials cannot offer them for carriage unless they are classified. Therefore, UN Model Regulations used classification system in which each hazardous substance or article is assigned to the class, depending on the type of hazards it presents. Classification of dangerous goods is broken down into nine classes according to the type of hazards or items present that is explosives, gases, flammable liquids, flammable solids, oxidizers and organic peroxides, toxic and infectious substances, radioactive substance, corrosives substances and miscellaneous dangerous goods.
Explosive are materials or goods that have the ability to quickly due to fire or explode as a result of a chemical reaction. It is must be classified because explosives capable by chemical reaction of producing gases at the temperature, pressure and speed that cause catastrophic damage through power and produce dangerous amounts of heat, light, sound, gas or smoke. The dangerous goods that commonly transported by air are fireworks, ammunition, explosive charges, air bag inflators and rockets.
Furthermore, gas is defined by the dangerous goods regulations which materials have a vapour pressure of 300 kPa or more than at 50 ° c or gases completely at 20 ° c at standard atmospheric pressure, and goods containing these substances. The gasses are cover by flammable gas, non-flammable gases and poisonous gases. Gases are capable posing a serious danger because of their flammability, potential as asphyxiates, the ability to oxidize and their toxicity to humans or corrosiveness that must be classified.
Flammable liquids are defined as liquid or mixture of liquids and mixture of liquids that containing solids in solution which has different flash point temperature of not more than 60-65°C. In addition, the liquids are offer for transport by air at temperatures at or above the flash point or materials being transported at high temperature and they will emit a flammable vapour at temperatures at or below the maximum transport temperature.
Flammable liquids must be classified due to their fluctuations, flammable and the potential to cause severe or turbulence spread that can pose serious hazards. Flammable solids are materials that easily to ignite either spontaneously or not, readily combustible and can interact with water that become spontaneously flammable which it emit flammable gas when in contact with water. This substance also capable of posing serious hazards due to volatility, combustibility and can cause severe conflagrations which it must be classified.
Oxidizers can cause combustion by yielding oxygen as a result of redox chemical reaction and organic peroxides are materials that can be considered as derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both of the hydrogen atoms of chemical structures have been replaced by organic radicals. In addition, toxic substances are liable to cause death or serious injury that can harm human health if inhaled, swallowed or by skin contact while infectious substance known as biohazards that contain pathogen, the virus culture. It must be classified because it can pose a risk to human and animal health upon contact.
Moreover, radioactive substances are defined as any material that containing radionuclide and comprise substance or combination of substance emit radiation. These radioactive substances are used in medical or scientific purposes. It will present severe or fatal health problems to human or people who are exposed to. Next, corrosives are substances that can cause severe damage by chemical action when in contact by living tissue which can damage other freight or in any transport and surrounding materials. Miscellaneous dangerous goods present several of hazards to human health and safety, infrastructure or the way they carry goods.
Furthermore, miscellaneous dangerous goods may can cause harm but not as danger as other class of dangerous goods. For examples, dry ice and air bag inflators. FIGURE 4: TYPE OF CLASSIFICATION 3. 0 IMPORTANCE HANDLING DANGEROUS GOODS As we know, people who handle dangerous goods are the professional that have licence to handling the dangerous goods by air. Therefore, they usually will often wear protective equipment and aware about surrounding of dangerous goods by air and their responsibilities to handle the dangerous goods properly.
It is important to handle the dangerous goods by air properly. If the dangerous goods not correctly handle, it may result in leading to the undeclared shipments, can cause harm to people or environment, cannot ensure that the dangerous goods is safe and secure which can decreases a company effectiveness, efficiency and productivity. Therefore, handling the dangerous goods correctly can reduce harm to people and environment. For examples, the professional handling must ensure the safety before loading the dangerous goods that can harm people or environment.
Due to human error, this situation have occurred in so many years due to flammable liquids that contained in passengers stowed baggage was leaking and it ignite with the ignition source causing the explosion which cause the aircraft crashed with the death of all on board. CASA, safe skies for all (online), available from: http://www. casa. gov. au/scripts [Accessed 28 January 2014]. Furthermore, with professional handling it can leading to ensure the safe and secure shipments of dangerous goods which is there are no mishandling the goods or undeclared shipments.
Moreover, the workers are following the safety procedures or regulation properly that they can ensure the safety of shipments by air. If the workers failure to follow the procedures, it will due to human error that can cause damage in aircraft. For examples, the workers loading the dangerous goods for casually and it can cause the shipments unsafe or unprotected. In addition, with excellent handling performance it can improves the company or business effectiveness, efficiency and productivity. It can increase the amount of customer to deliver the dangerous goods by their company and which it can lead to increase their profit.
4. 0 CONCLUSION As a conclusion, dangerous goods must be manage by follow their safety procedures or regulation that is set in ICAO perspective. As we know, dangerous goods are materials with hazardous properties which if not properly controlled; it will present a potential hazard to safety and human health. The dangerous goods is a must to be handled, packaged, labelled and transported based on ICAO perspective. In aviation industry, safety is prioritize first of making profit. Therefore, limitation on transport of dangerous goods by air must be followed to avoid accident.
It is important for the workers to understand the content inside Annex 18 especially in the technical instruction to avoid damage or accident. The organizations also have responsibilities to apply throughout the process of preventing and responding to spillage or releases of dangerous goods. Therefore, the company must improve the regulation or safety procedures based on the technology nowadays. In addition, the company must implement the concept or effort to improve the handling of dangerous goods by air.