This chapter will sum up and discourse the research consequences generated from old chapter and come to a decision. Given this is a on the job study, therefore a recommendation will be proposed to the medicated spirits industry. In add-on, this concluding chapter will besides foreground the managerial deductions and the theoretical parts of the research. Finally, the restriction of this research will be outlined and suggestions to those who intend to carry on relevant research in this field will be proposed.
5.2 Conclusion And Discussion
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The major aim of this survey is to analyze how state of origin effects influences Malayan consumers on merchandise rating ; buying juncture ; index of quality ; perceptual experience of state image and information for purchasing determination related to their attitude and buying of medicated spirits in Malaysia. Based on the analyses discussed in the old chapter, five hypotheses have been developed and tested. The empirical consequences of this survey found that Malayan consumers did take state of beginning into their history before doing the buying determination of medicated spirits. Sing past researches has offered empirical consequences on the positive relationship between state of beginning and merchandise rating ( e.g. Bilkey and Nes, 1982 ; d’Astous and Ahmed, 1999 ; Kaynak and Kara, 2002 ; Laroche et. al. , 2005 ; Sohail, 2005 ; Balestrini and Gamble, 2006 ; Ghazali et. al. , 2008 ) , this survey is besides support to priors findings. However, state of origin image was considered as a general of import influence on merchandise rating every bit good as the equity of stigmatization. The part of the consequence to state of origin effects on medicated spirits in Malaysia was concluded and discussed as follows:
This survey proposed that state of beginning is of import when Malayan consumers evaluate medicated spirits for ain ingestion and gift giving. This consequence is non in line with the researches done by Balestrini and Gamble ( 2006 ) and USDA ( 1998, 2005, 2008 ) . This indicated that the empirical consequences of state of origin effects on vino may non suitable to use on the experiment of medicated spirits. Therefore, the issues of owns ingestion is more of import that gift giving or vies and poetry is really of import when consumer purchasing vino, nevertheless it does non intend anything to Malayan consumers before purchase determination. The consequence besides indicated that the trade name image is the most effectual for consumers instead so state of beginning. Although state of beginning and monetary value are besides deemed as top three of import standards for purchasing medicated spirits. This besides can be explained as Malayan consumers ‘ head set are non really unfastened and they pigeonholing state of beginning when they buy medicated spirits for ain ego or for other people. They are perceived that all medicated spiritss from developed or developing state its benefits are differential in footings of benefits, trade name and monetary value. As Malayan consumers believed merchandises from developed states it quality is better so those merchandise made by developing states. Furthermore, this survey besides showed that trade name consciousness tied up with state image closely and this is a major factor to impact they attitude and purchase determination. As the consequence showed that the effects of different trade name image on consumers ‘ quality rating have important differences. The better the trade name image and state image is, the higher the quality. On the other manus, the consequence besides indicated that Malayan consumers evaluate the medicated spiritss made in France and Japan as the most favorable state of beginning and they scored extremely to both produced states merely because of Benedictine D.O.M. and Yomeishu have really strong trade name consciousness in Malaysia. This consequence might be of import for foreign medicated spirits makers, particularly those makers from France and Japan and their merchandise non yet enter Malaysia market. Aggressive attitude and effectual selling and branding schemes may assist them to acquire a good starting point in the market. For those manufacturers with weak trade name consciousness, their sellers should develop a strong selling scheme and trade name edifice runs to pull or force up consumers ‘ attitude towards their merchandises.
This survey besides proposed that most of Malayan consumers agreed that “ state of beginning ” of medicated spirits is a good index of the quality of medicated spirits when they evaluate medicated spiritss. State of beginning had been tested through empirical observation in this survey and the consequences shows that state of beginning with important influence on merchandise rating in all 4 trade name ‘s beginning, and it had indirect influences on Malaysia consumers ‘ attitude on merchandise quality. An exclusion here is medicated spiritss produced in China ( Changyu Ling Zhi Cheiw ) and Great Britain ( Wincarnis ) . In footings of perceptual experience on merchandise quality of medicated spirits, consumers believed that China suffers from an image job since its merchandises image are considered to be inexpensive and low quality. Although nutrient safety dirts from 2007 to 2009 hold generated a negative state image to merchandises of China and some of the nutrient points from China are to a great extent affected in international market. However, China medicated spiritss are non affected every bit earnestly as other China nutrient merchandises. This is because Malayan Chinese consumers believe with the Chinese traditional medical theories as anchor, Chinese medicated spirits should be more effectual so others non Chinese medicated spirits. Demographics of this survey make supply a good statement for this scrutiny. Furthermore, Great Britain ( Wincarnis ) is suffers from a stigmatization and selling jobs due to its weak trade name consciousness, even if a few of trade name edifice runs have been done by it ‘s official distributers. However, if the perceptual experience of state image remains unchanged, all sellers shall specially pay attending to China and Great Britain medicated spiritss. However, the state of affairs mentioned above can be improved by developing a strong advertisement to implement consumers to acquire familiar or to cognize the merchandises.
This survey found that there is a important relationship between state image and trade name image as Malayan consumers perceived that the quality of medicated spirits is closely related to the province of economic development of a manufacturer state. This consequence has supported Ghazali ‘s ( 2008 ) and Yaris ( 2007 ) determination. It is found that Malayan consumers relate the quality of merchandise with the economic development of the merchandise ‘s state of beginning. However, this consequence is non consistent with impression that merchandise made in developing state will be negatively perceived by consumers ( Bilkey and Nes, 1982 ) . However, this does non connote that the degrees of the economic system development degree of the manufacturer place state will be positively related to the degree of the consumers ‘ attitude toward merchandises. For illustration, although Wincarnis is a merchandise of Great Britain, one of the developed and progress state in the universe, consumers still voted extremely in the scope from really hapless to somewhat hapless comparison to other developed states such as France and Japan. As a consequence of weak trade name name, a strong state of origin image can be offset easy.
Although Malayan consumers perceive state of beginning is an of import extrinsic cue for merchandise rating, nevertheless they prefer to utilize trade name instead so state of beginning as first piece of information for merchandise rating when make up one’s minding which medicated spirits to purchase. This decision indicated that Malayan consumers are non reliance on state of origin image when measuring medicated spirits, even though he or she attaches state of origin information to the quality of the medicated spirits. For them, purchasing a good know trade name is the best bargain to minimise hazard of purchase determination as a strong trade name name is accepted by anyone, particularly the warrant and guarantee of merchandise quality and duty. This is besides in line with Laroche et. Al. ( 2005 ) findings as they suggested that state image and merchandises beliefs affected merchandise ratings at the same time irrespective of consumers ‘ degree of acquaintance with a state ‘s merchandises.
Harmonizing to the consequences of this survey, state of beginning is an of import determiner of consumers ‘ attitude on merchandise rating. For Hai-O Group, which is one of the largest medicated spirits importers, jobbers, distributers and retail merchants in Malaysia, several suggestions have been established and presented as follows in order to assist them to construct better concern:
5.3.1 Product Category
This survey suggested that Hai-O Group should see tie ining with France and Japan to make Original Equipment Manufacturing ( OEM ) or private labeling. However they must hold a really strong house trade name and distribution webs. Another major concern is how to present a gross revenues volume committedness.
Consumers are willing to pay higher monetary value for the merchandise with positive state of origin image over those points with negative reputes ( Drozdenko & A ; Jensen, 2009 ) . For medicated spirits made in China, most of the trade names are utilizing low monetary value scheme. It can be explained as because of their low production cost and China authorities export revenue enhancement discount policy. Although a low monetary value policy enable China merchandises penetrate abroad markets easy, but in consumers ‘ mentality, “ low monetary value ” besides stand for “ low quality ” . Low pricing scheme may non lend to the trade name edifice attempts as consumers may demo prejudice to the inexpensive merchandises. Thus the survey suggests that Hai-O Group should reexamine their pricing scheme positively. They should increase the monetary value to a sensible degree in order to acquire out of the “ low monetary value ” and “ low quality ” positioning. They giving some thing wagess to consumers as premium, for illustration a illumination, in order to countervail the negative impact of monetary value lifting. On the other manus, the premium generated from the monetary value increase can besides be used as advertisement and publicity budget in order to heighten the merchandise image.
5.3.3 Gross saless Promotion
For those medicated spiritss suffer with weak trade name consciousness and negative state image, this survey suggests that sellers should develop strong selling schemes, such as addition advertisement activities ( Television, newspapers and magazines, wireless ) , heightening personal merchandising preparation, set uping word-and-mouth effects, trying and savoring, route show and value competition, monetary value discount, value gift battalion, particular festival publicity, wellness seminar, free simple medical cheque and etc, in order to near consumers to acquire familiar or to cognize the merchandises. Culture events such as Mid Autumn Festival, People Republic of China National twenty-four hours, Dumpling Festival, and Chinese New Year, can be utilized as “ Culture Ambassadors ” to advance state image, heighten the civilization significance of the merchandises.
5.4 Managerial Deduction
The growing of international trade and the transmutation of globalisation have drastically widened the sourcing of the merchandise of different national beginnings ; while consumers are in face of more and more options for merchandises from all over the universe. It is besides a really of import variable that influence the transnational corporation ‘s worldwide selling scheme and concern planning. Respects to less state of origin research on medicated spirits industry in Malaysia has been done, this research has discovered through empirical consequences that state of origin effects influence consumers ‘ rating of medicated spirits and consumers has non peculiar prejudice on merchandises from different states. Therefore medicated spirits manufacturers, no affair their merchandises already in the market or ready to come in, could be benefited from the findings of this survey as sellers can hold better apprehension of Malayan consumer behaviors and enable them to bring forth more aggressive and effectual selling program and stigmatization schemes.
For marketing theory, this survey has highlighted the importance of state of origin effects on Malayan consumers ‘ merchandise rating for sellers. For those manufacturers who are suffers for weak trade name name and low state image, this survey can be considered as a eventuality attack to understanding a good selling scheme such as constructing a good trade name name for merchandise, offer in sensible monetary value, and aggressive advertisement program can assist to countervail these negative factors. Once a positive image is established, the sellers could do usage of the state of origin effects as added value for concern enlargement or salvaging market incursion cost every bit good as advertisement and publicity outgo on come ining new market.
For academe this survey will lend to the academic principal of cognition as it is an of import mention of the medicated spirits merchandise and medicated liquor consumer behaviors in Malaysia and Southeast Asia. It is besides important to analyze the state of origin consequence on medicated spirits in the context of internationalism and globalisation every bit good as the lifting medicated liquor development tendency.
This survey has identified a figure of restrictions. Therefore, the findings of this survey should be interpreted with the consideration of the undermentioned restrictions:
Time and resource restrictions every bit good as deficit of work force are a major restraint to carry on a more extended survey affecting a larger sample size. Therefore the sample country merely covers Klang Valley including Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. Northern country ( Pulau Pinang, Ipoh, Taiping and etc. ) and Southern country ( Seremban, Melaka, Muar, Johor Bahru ) are non included, restricting the representative of the sample.
The consequence from the current research may hold limited external cogency sing the sample composing of preponderantly Chinese respondents. Indian and Malayans are non selected for the study due to religion imposts and other civilization factors. With all of the respondents are Chinese, the consumers behaviors of the Chinese bunch could still hold different from those non Chinese sample. As a consequence, the survey is limited to explicate the features of the Malaysia Consumer group and may non use to general consumers.
Although this research is focus on Malaysia Chinese consumers. However, the consequence may non be able to use to other Chinese community in other states or countries such as Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan every bit good as other Chinese community in South East Asia, such as Thailand, Indonesia and Philippine.
The findings of the survey were based on merely one intoxicant merchandise class – medicated liquor merchandise. It is possible that the state of beginning cues do non hold influence perceptual experiences of quality and purchasing purpose for other alcohol merchandise classs, such as Liqueur, Gin, Rum, Vodka and etc.
The respondents have limited pick: merely 4 trade names of medicated spiritss are selected for experimentation. This survey do non cover other medicated spiritss fabricating states and country such as Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand. Therefore the consequence is limited to prove the effects of state of origin towards merchandises from these states.
The demographic features may act upon the exact nature of the state of origin consequence as there is rather a figure of the participants are homemaker / retired and their instruction degrees largely are primary and secondary. They may non hold adequate capableness to understand the intent of the study. This misunderstands may reflected on the reply of questionnaire.
In add-on, the mark of this survey is to analyze the effects of state of beginning on medicated spirits merchandise. The consequence of this survey may non suitable for other intoxicant merchandises in Malaysia, such as samsu, beer, vino and liquors.
5.6 Future Research
Given this survey taken Malayan Chinese citizens as the samples is limited representation of Malayan consumers group, therefore it was suggested that future survey should diversified the sample group to Indian, Thai and other cultural groups which have accustomed medicated spirits imbibing civilization. it could take to more empirical trial on different cultural groups, and this could be profit the sellers to obtain the apprehension of different ethnics ‘ attitude towards state of beginning and devouring wont for medicated spirits selling scheme.
In add-on, this survey conducted an empirical trial for state of origin effects on medicated spirits as a whole at a clip, it has less been studied. Therefore, for farther comprehensive survey, it was suggested that farther research should besides analyze more on the functions between state of origin effects and marketing mix such as stigmatization, pricing, advertisement, publicity, etc. It can increase the sellers ‘ understanding on market environment and selling scheme planning.
On the other manus, it would be interesting to transport out comparative research on the Malaysian medicated liquor market with Singapore medicated liquor market as both states have a really close relationship and similar value of demographic and evaluate standards.
The survey merely applied 4 trade names of medicated spiritss as experimental merchandises. This suggests that addition more trade names from other states and countries such as Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam etc, which may hold important influence on consumers ‘ perceptual experience for experiment.
Other issues that are suggested for analysis are to look into into the interfere function of monetary value price reduction, trade name equity, word of oral cavity behaviour on the consequence of the state of origin towards consumers ‘ merchandise rating of medicated spirits.
Future research would besides suggested to pass attempt in look intoing more complex issues such as state stereotyping, cultural prejudice and negative state image, which may hold important influence on consumers ‘ perceptual experience of state of origin effects on medicated spirits.